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โครงการวิจัยเรื่องพัฒนาการแบบองค์รวมของเด็กไทย : ปัจจัยคัดสรรด้านครอบครัว และการอบรมเลี้ยงดูเด็ก

หน่วยงาน สำนักงานกองทุนสนับสนุนการวิจัย

รายละเอียด

ชื่อเรื่อง : โครงการวิจัยเรื่องพัฒนาการแบบองค์รวมของเด็กไทย : ปัจจัยคัดสรรด้านครอบครัว และการอบรมเลี้ยงดูเด็ก
นักวิจัย : ลัดดา เหมาะสุวรรณ
คำค้น : การอบรม , การเลี้ยงดู , ครอบครัว , พัฒนาการเด็ก
หน่วยงาน : สำนักงานกองทุนสนับสนุนการวิจัย
ผู้ร่วมงาน : -
ปีพิมพ์ : 2546
อ้างอิง : http://elibrary.trf.or.th/project_content.asp?PJID=RDG4310010 , http://research.trf.or.th/node/1090
ที่มา : -
ความเชี่ยวชาญ : -
ความสัมพันธ์ : -
ขอบเขตของเนื้อหา : -
บทคัดย่อ/คำอธิบาย :

เครื่องมือส่งเสริมพัฒนาการและอารมณ์ของเด็กปฐมวัยไทย ผลการศึกษาจากโครงการวิจัยพัฒนาการแบบองค์รวม แสดงว่าเด็กไทยมีพัฒนาการด้านกายด้านสติปัญญา และด้านอารมณ์-จิตใจ- สังคม-จริยธรรมผ่านเกณฑ์ทุกด้านลดลงตามวัย หรืออีกนัยหนึ่ง เด็กไทยมีพัฒนาการแบบองค์รวมสมวัยลดลงตามอายุ โดยพัฒนาการด้านที่ ถ่วงให้เด็กไทยมีพัฒนาการองค์รวมไม่สมวัย คือ พัฒนาการด้านสติปัญญา การศึกษานี้ยังพบว่า ปัจจัยร่วมสำคัญที่สัมพันธ์กับพัฒนาการของ เด็กทุกด้านคือ รายได้ของครอบครัว และการศึกษาของแม่และพ่อ คณะวิจัยจึงสร้างเครื่องมือส่งเสริมพัฒนาการและอารมณ์สำหรับเด็กกลุ่ม ปฐมวัย ซึ่งเป็นช่วงวัยสำคัญที่เด็กสามารถเรียนรู้ซึมซับสิ่งต่าง ๆ ได้ดีที่สุด โดยเน้นให้ใช้กับกลุ่มรายได้น้อยและการศึกษาต่ำในชนบทและใน เมือง ลักษณะของเครื่องมือ เป็นแบบบันทึกและบัตรอ่านผลพร้อมคู่มือแนะนำการฝึกพัฒนาการ ประเมินพัฒนาการของเด็กเป็น 4 ระดับตามสี ดังนี้ คือ สีฟ้า หมายถึง ทำได้เร็วกว่าเด็กส่วนใหญ่ สีเขียว หมายถึง ทำได้เร็วพอ ๆ กับเด็กส่วนใหญ่ สีเหลือง หมายถึงควรฝึกเพิ่มถ้าเด็กยังทำไม่ได้ และสีชมพู หมายถึง เด็กมีพัฒนาการช้ากว่าวัย และควรปรึกษาเจ้าหน้าที่สาธารณสุขใกล้บ้าน สำหรับรายการพัฒนาการในแบบบันทึกนั้น คณะวิจัยได้คัดเลือกรายการที่พบว่าเด็กส่วนใหญ่ล่าช้าจากข้อค้นพบของโครงการวิจัยพัฒนาการแบบองค์รวม1 และโครงการวิจัยระยะยาวใน เด็กไทย 2 1 รายการของเด็กอายุ 1-< 6 ปี 2 รายการของเด็กอายุ < 1 ปี การทดสอบเครื่องมือ คณะวิจัยได้ตรวจสอบความเหมาะสมของเนื้อหาและรูปแบบ โดยการประชุมขอความเห็นจากผู้ทรงคุณวุฒิด้านพัฒนาการเด็ก หลังจากนั้นได้ทดสอบความพึงพอใจและการใช้เครื่องมือกับกลุ่มเป้าหมาย 2 กลุ่ม คือ กลุ่มแม่ในเขตชุมชนแออัดของกรุงเทพมหานคร และในเขตชนบทของจังหวัดพิษณุโลก จังหวัดสระบุรี จังหวัดนครศรีธรรมราช และจังหวัดขอนแก่น จำนวน 100 คน และกลุ่มเจ้าหน้าที่ สาธารณสุขหรือพยาบาลที่ปฏิบัติงานระดับชุมชนในพื้นที่ดังกล่าวข้างต้น จำนวน 25 คน ผลการศึกษา ผู้ทำแบบทดสอบกลุ่มแม่มีความพึงพอใจกับเครื่องมือมาก-มากที่สุด ส่วนใหญ่ทำแบบสอบการใช้เครื่องมือในการประเมินพัฒนา การของกรณีตัวอย่างและแปลผลได้ถูกต้อง ผู้ทำแบบทดสอบกลุ่มเจ้าหน้าที่สาธารณสุขหรือพยาบาลมีความพึงพอใจกับเครื่องมือปานกลาง และส่วนใหญ่ทำแบบทดสอบการใช้เครื่องมือในการประเมินพัฒนาการของกรณีตัวอย่างและแปลผลได้ถูกต้องเช่นกัน คณะวิจัยได้นำข้อแนะนำที่ได้รับจากทั้งสองกลุ่มมาปรับเครื่องมือให้เหมาะสมกับการใช้ในระดับครองครัวของกลุ่มผู้ขาดโอกาส เข้าถึงองค์ความรู้ ด้วยความที่อยู่ห่างไกล หรือยากจน หรือการศึกษาน้อย ITS ASSOCIATION WITH FAMILY FACTORS AND CHILD REARING The ultimate goal of national child policy has been set at a “smart, good and happy” child. In order to achieve this goal, all aspects of child’s development must be nurtured. In 2001 the Holistic Development of Thai Children Study has conducted a nation-wide survey of Thai children aged 1-18 years old and their families enrolled by a stratified three-stage random sampling. Data collected included child’s weight and height, developmental quotient (DQ) or intelligence quotient (IQ), emotional –social-moral behavior score (ESM), family data, and child rearing praclice (CR). Normal holistic development was defined as height-for-age (HA) equal to or above median -2 SD, DQ or IQ equal to or above 90, and ESM score equal to or above 25th percentile for age. Delayed holistic development was defined as having any of the three components below the above cut-off points. Principal component analysis was used to combine the three components (HA, DQ or IQ, ESM score) and create a new holistic development score (HDS). Then this new variable was used in the Path Analysis to explore the effect of family determinants and CR on holistic development of Thai children. Results: A total of 9,488 children aged 1-18 years old were studied. With regards to nutritional status. by using the 1999 Thai Growth Reference, the prevalence of obesity in this survey was 8.2%, that of underweight was 5.4%, whereas that of stunting was 6.2%. Comparing to previous national surveys over that past 15 years, prevalence of underweight of the young children has constantly declined 1.2& per year. The stunting prevalence has decreased 1.2% per year too during the first ten years but it has not changed much later. For obesity which has been recognized recently, its prevalence has increased alarmingly 36% in just 5 years. The cognitive development of subjects was more behind as they were older. Mean developmental quotient was 100.5 (standard deviation of 14.3) for the 1-<3 y-olds, 111.5 (sd 20.5) using the Draw-A-Person Test and 91.1 (sd 22.7) using the Gesell figure drawing for the 3-<6 y-olds. Mean intellectual quotient (IQ) of the 6-<13 y-olds and the 13-18 y-olds was 88.0 (sd 12.6) and 86.7 (sd 13.9), respectively. With regards to ESM development, comparing with the American children aged 12-35 months old, our subjects were more developed in prosocial peer relations and empathy but less-developed in mastery motivation and attention skill. Subjects aged 6-<10 years were well-developed in the social relatedness like the younger ones but less-developed in attention and patience skills. As they reached late adolescence they leamed most of life skills except the creativeness. Moral development score, on the contrary, was inversely associated with age. A total of 8,258 subjects aged 2-18 years old were eligible for HD analysis. Prevalence of delayed HD increased with age from 47.4% in the under three to 67.3% in the 3-<6 y old s, 73.6% in the 6-<13 y olds, and 75.5% in the 13-18 y olds. The northeastern and the northern regions had the highest prevalence, while Bangkok region had the lowest Using Path Analysis, the two most important factors influencing HD were CR score and family income. Effect of CR score on HDS was largest in the 2-<6 y-olds, but ranked second in the 6-<13 y-olds and the 13-18 y-old. Its effect size also decreased with age. On the contrary, family income ranked first in the 6-<13 y-olds and the 13-18 y-olds but ranked second in the under 6 group. Factors influencing the child rearing practice of the 2-<6 y-olds were family income and number of children in the family. Those of the school age children and adolescents were parental education. This is the first report of holistic child development and will be the milestone of research on development of the whole child. Our findings will be useful for a strategic formulation of an effective national child’s development policy to achieve the desired goal. The will also serve as the baseline for future national surveys. 1 Height data was not collected in the 1-<2 years old subjects. Eligible cases for this analysis thus included subjects aged from 2 to 18 years old. RESEARCH TOOLS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This project aims at studying child development with regard to child rearing in the Thai families holistically. A cross sectional study of Thai families with children 18 years and under was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods. For the quantitative study, a sample of 9,594 households (children and their caretakers) was selected. Stratified Three-Stage Sampling was used as sampling plan. Provinces are the first sampling unit whereas enumeration districts/villages and households are the second and the third sampling units. In the first stage, 4 regions and Bangkok acted as strata where 16 provinces from 4 regions and 16 sub-regions in Bangkok were chosen proportionally to the number of households in each province. In the second stage, 533 enumeration districts/villages were chosen proportionally to the number of households in each enumeration districts/villages. And finally in the third stage, 18 households with one child and his/her caretaker each were chosen from a selected enumeration district/village. For the qualitative study, 108 teenagers (13-18 years) and 216 caretakers of children of all ages covered in the project were randomly chosen from the quantitative study’s sampling frame. Questionnaires, testing tools, and standard tools for measuring weight and height were used for data collection. Tools for data collection were developed differently for 6 age groups, including 1-<3 years, 3-<6 years, 6-<10 years, 10-<13 years, 13-<16 years, and 16-18 years. For data analysis. children were grouped into 3 categories, namely the preschoolers (1-<6 years), school children (6-<13 years) and teenagers (13-18 years). Descriptive statistics were employed to describe socio-economic and environment of households, characteristics of children, all aspects of child rearing, family relationships, and family crisis. Prevalence of children with delayed physical development, emotional-social-moral development, cognitive development, and holistic development were estimated. Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test. correlation and multiple regression analysis, logistic regression and polytomous regression were used to examine the relationships between child development. child rearing and family characteristics Kappa Statistics were used to look at the agreement of qualitative data. Analysis of variance was used to compare effects of factors associated with child development To construct a measure of the so-called holistic development of children, principal components analysis was used. Path model was also constructed to look at the direct and indirect effects of factors effecting the child development. Since data came from a cross sectional study, one should bear in mind that the analysis or the interpretation may not be done across age groups. Also with the selected sample size, results are appropriate at country-wise and region-wise levels. FAMILY PROFILES OF CHILDREN IN THE HOLISTIC DEVELOPMENT OF THAI CHILDREN STUDY In the national survey of children aged 1-18 years old of the Holistic Development of Thai Children in 2001, data of families of studied children were collected as explanatory factors of child development. They were family size, family structure, family type, home environment, family relation and family crisis. Results: Average size of the studied families was 5, greater than the average size of general Thai families (3.7) from the census of the same years. The number of children per family was 2. In regard to family type, 54.6% were complete families with father, mother and children. Extended families with grand parents accounted for 37.3%. Families comprising of only children or children and other relatives were 8.2%. One third of fathers, mothers or other types of caretakers of children had primary education level. More than half of the parents were engaged in the labor intensive work e.g. farmers, laborers. Average family income was 10,385 baht per month and 12.2% of families lived under the poverty line. Mothers were the major caretaker of all age group. For the under six years old group, 45.2% lived in the nurtured environment e.g. living near a playground for young children, public park, library or day care center, whereas 86% of the families lived near liquor shops and 14.2% lived near gambling places or night entertainment area. Most mothers or caretakers assessed relationship within their families as high in attachment and changeability, whereas adolescents rated their families as in the midrange group. Agreement between mother’s and child’s perception on level of family relation are poor. In regard to events during the past year that had an impact on the family, the five most common causes of family crisis were economic problem, unresolved family problem, fighting between the couple or divorce or separate, pregnancy and child rearing issue, and job change or lay off. In conclusion, quite a few families of subjects in this study were vulnerable and might not be able to nurture their children to fully develop physically, mentally, emotionally and socially as expected. HEALTH AND SOCIAL STATUS OF THAI CHILDREN In 2001, the Holistic Development of Thai Children Study has conducted a nation-wide survey of 9,488 Thai children aged 1-18 years old and their families enrolled by a three-stage stratified random sampling. Besides data on total child development, information on health and social status were also collected. Results: Among the under six years old group, the coverage of vaccines listed in the national immunization program was almost 100%, except for the measles vaccine which was 93.4%. Sixteen percent of the school age children (6-<13 years old) and 11.3% of the adolescents (13-18 years old) were admitted during the past year. Dengue hemorrhagic fever ranked second in the school age group and first in the adolescents as the cause of admission, while accidents came second and fourth in the adolescents and school age children, respectively. Mean age of menarche was 12.6 years, while that of the first experience of wet dream in boys was 13.6 years. Among adolescents, 114 (3.6%) out of 3,154 cases have had sexual relationships. The mean age of the first experience was 15.5 years old. Less than half of these cases used condom in the past three months, whereas one third drank alcohol before having sex. Over the past three months, about 42% did not wear a helmet during riding a motorcycle and 19.4% did not put on seat belt while driving. Eight percent of adolescents reported ever smoke, 21% had alcoholic drink and 15.6% have tried liquors. Almost half of the 6-18 years old reported being verbally abused by the family. About 28% of the school age group and 8% of adolescents reported physical abuse. Over the past three months, 5.3% to 31.5% of the 6-18 years olds engaged in various violent activities. Suicidal attempt or idea was reported from 3.2% of adolescents. Those who have been abused reported violent behaviors significantly greater than those who have not. Three quarter of the 3-<6 years old children were in day care or kindergarten. Almost all children watched television. Watching time increased from 10.15 hours per week to 14.7, 17.9, 20.6, 23.7, and 26.8 hours per week at the age of 3, 6, 9, 13, and 18 years old, respectively. Among the 6,303 6-18 years old subjects, 5.2% reported working. 17.8% of this group were younger than 13 years old. About half of them were not in school. One fourth worked more than 48 hours per week. Nutritional status and emotional-social-moral score of these subjects were not different from those who did work, whereas their IQ scores were significantly lower. These findings are useful information for a strategic planning to upgrade health and social status of Thai children. CHILD REARING PRACTICES OF THAI FAMILIES : A QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE STUDY This study aimed to explore child rearing practices and their determinants of studied families in the Holistic Development of Thai Children study. The quantitative data were collected from 9,488 families with children aged 1-18 years old enrolled by a three stage stratified random sampling during September to December 2001. The qualitative data were collected by in-depth Interview of 209 mothers/caretakers sampled from subjects enrolled in the quantitative study. Results: From the in-depth interview. expectation of mothers/caretakers of children of all age group was similar across regions i.e. expecting children to be good, smart and have good career. To achieve this goal, most of them worked hard to save money for education of their children. They mostly used verbal approach to guide their children to learn rather than being a role model in reading or learning by themselves. In regard to gender role, most caretakers still held on to the tradition way of teaching boys to be strong and girls to be obedient and keen on household chores. From the multivariate analysis, the most important determinant of child rearing of all age group was maternal educational level. Mothers with high education were likely to nurture their children’s development for better than mothers with only compulsory education or lower. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THAI CHILDREN : GROWTH, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND PHYSICAL FITNESS Growth and nutritional status is an important indicator of economic development of the nation. As Thailand has been through an economic transition, it is important to investigate the effect of this change on physical growth of Thai children. Methods: A representative sample of Thai children aged 1-18 years was recruited by a stratified three stage random sampling in a nation-wide survey of the Holistic Development of Thai Children Study during September – December 2001. Weights and heights were measured by standard techniques. Cardio-respiratory fitness was measured in the 6-18 years old subjects by a run/walk test, 800 m for the 6-<8 years olds and 1,600 m for the rest. Result: The total number of 1-18 years old children in this survey was 9,488. With regards to nutritional status. by using the 2-standard deviation cut-off of the 1999 Reference values for weights and heights of Thai population aged 1 d – 19 years old, the prevalence of obesity of Thai children in 2001 was 8.2%, whereas that of stunting was 6.2%. Urban children were 1.8 times more obese than the rural children of the same age, while the latter had 1.6 times higher stunting rate. Bangkok had the highest prevalence of obesity (11.6%), whereas the northeast region was highest in stunting (7.3%) Comparing to previous national surveys over the past 15 years. prevalence of underweight of the young children has constantly declined 1.2% per year. The stunting prevalence has decreased 1.2% per year during the first ten years too but it has not changed much over the past five years. For obesity which has been recognized recently, its prevalence has increased alarmingly 36% in just 5 years. Concerning cardio-respiratory fitness level, in comparison with the US standard, 48% of the subjects had poor fitness, only 28.8% were in the good to excellent group. Major determinant of poor nutritional status (both under and over nutrition) from multivariate analysis was family income. Conclusion: Findings of this survey indicated the presence of dual form of nutritional problems in Thai children – under – and over-nutrition. Both are related to long-term consequences. Half of them had poor cardio-respiratory fitness. These children would be benefited from poverty alleviation program. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THAI CHILDREN introduction Children’s cognitive development has its fundamental ground starting from the perinatal period influencing mainly be genetic and other biological factors. As the children grow up, many environmental factors, including child rearing and learning experience, has shaped up their developmental trajectory. In Thailand, there had not been any nation-wide survey to study how child-rearing practice in Thai context has affected the children’s intellectual potential before. Objectives 1.To assess the cognitive development of Thai children and adolescents aged 1 to 18 years. 2.To study the correlation between the children’s cognitive development and affecting factors, mainly child rearing practice. Methods 1.In 2001, The Holistic Development of Thai Children Study Group conducted the nation-wide survey of Thai children aged 1-18 years and their families enrolled by a four stage stratified random sampling. 2.9,488 children were categorized into 4 age groups; 1,571 children aged 12-35 months, 1,585 children aged 36-71 months, 3,178 children aged 6-<13 years, and 3,174 children aged 13-18 years. 3.Data collected included children’s weight and height, family profile, child- rearing practice. 4.Children were assessed their cognitive function by using several screening tools shown as followed. -12 -35-month-old children were assessed by using a screening developmental test called Capute Scales (CAT/CLAMS). -36-71-month-old children were assessed by using 2 drawing tests (Draw-A-Person and Gesell figure) and a pragmatic language test. -A screening intelligence test called TONI (Test of Non-verbal Intelligence, third edition) was administered to all 6-18 year olds. The group of 6-<13 years also took a naming (vocabulary) test. Data analysis Descriptive and logistic regression analysis Results Most of the children had developmental status below the normal reference used in the western society. During the first few years of early childhood period, Thai children’s development was commensurate with their chronological age referring to the western standard. As the children are older, their cognitive development was more behind. The details in each age group are as followed. The total 1,437 12-35-month-old children, who were tested, had the mean developmental quotient of 100.5 (standard deviation of 14.3). The mean score of the language part was 101.7 (standard deviation of 18.3). and the mean score of the adaptive part was 99.4 (standard deviation of 15.7). While 20.6% of the children were developmentally advanced and probably advanced. The total 1,149 36-71-month-old children, who were tested, had the mean developmental quotient from the Draw-A-Person Test of 111.5 (standard deviation of 20.5), and from the Gesell figure drawing of 91.1 (standard deviation of 22.7). Because there is no normal reference of the pragmatic language test, this skill could not be evaluated. However, the language scores had statistically significant correlation with the drawing scores, more with the Gesell figure (r= 0.27) than with the Draw-A-Person test (r= 0.06). The total 3,135 6-12-years-old children, who were tested, had the mean intellectual quotient (IQ) of 88.0 (standard deviation of 12.6). While 64.0% of the children had IQ less than the normal range (90), only 6.4% had IQ above the normal range (110). The language skill assessed the rapid naming had statistically significant correlation with the IQ (r = 0.2 for the animal category and 0.1 for the fruit category). The mean score of the total vocabulary was 23.9 (standard deviation of 7.4). The children could name animals more than fruits. By using multiple regression analysis, mother’s education and family income were found to significantly correlate with children’s developmental quotient and intelligence quotient in all age groups. In addition, the total number of children in each family was a significant contributing factor only in the early childhood period. Other factors that had significant correlation with children’s cognitive function in the group of 12-35 month olds included child rearing practice relating to early intervention for mental development, parent’s marital status, mother’s occupation, and home environment. In school age and early adolescent groups, the number of hours watching television and caregivers were also found to be contributing factors with statistical significance. Conclusion Most of the 8,871 children aged 1-18 years, who were administered screening intelligence tests, had scores below average. As the children were older, the scores were decreasing. Mother’s education and family income were only two factors that had significant correlation with children’s development in all age groups. HOLISTIC DEVELOPMENT OF THAI CHIDREN The ultimate goal of national child policy has been set at a “smart, good and happy” child. In order to achieve this goal, all aspects of child’s development must be nurtured. In 2001 the Holistic Development of Thai Children Study has conducted a nation-wide stratified random sampling. Data collected included child’s weight and height, developmental quotient (DQ) or intelligence quotient (IQ), emotional-social-moral behavior score (ESM). family data, and child rearing practice (CR). Normal holistic development was defined as height-for-age (HA) equal to or above median – 2 SD, DQ or IQ equal to or above 90, and EMS score equal to or above 25th percentile for age. Delayed holistic development was defined as having any of the three components below the above cut-off points. Principal component analysis was used to combine the three components (HA, DQ or IQ, EMS score) and create a new holistic development score (HDS). Then this new variable was used in the Path Analysis to explore the effect of family determinants and CR on holistic development of Thai children. Results: A total of 8,258 Thai children aged 2-18 years old1 were eligible for this analysis. Prevalence of delayed holistic development increased with age from 47.4% in the under three to 67.3% in the 3-<6 y olds, 73.6% in the 6-<13 y olds, and 75.5% in the 13-18 y olds. The northeastern and the northern regions had the highest prevalence, while Bangkok region had the lowest. Using Path Analysis, the two most important factors influencing holistic development were CR score and family income. Effect of CR score on HDS was largest in the 2-<6 y olds, but ranked second in the 6-<13 y olds and the 13-18 y olds. Its effect size also decreased with age. On the contrary, family income ranked first in the 6-<13 y olds and the 13-18 y olds but ranked second in the under 6 age group. Factors influencing the child rearing practice of the 2-<6 years olds were family income and number of children in the family. Those of the school age children and adolescents were parental education. This is the first report of holistic child development and will be the milestone of research on development of the whole child. Our findings will be useful for a strategic formulation of an effective national child’s development policy to achieve the desired goal. They will also serve as the baseline for future national surveys. 1 Height data was not collected in the 1-<2 years old subjects, eligible cases for this analysis thus included subjects aged from 2 to 18 years old. DEVELOPMENTAL ASSESSMENT CARD FOR FAMILY AND COMMUNITY USE indings from the Holistic Development of Thai Children showed that percentage of children with delayed holistic development increased with age. Cognitive development was the major domain that rendered subjects to developmental delay. Children at risk were those from the low income family or having parents with low education. Developmental assessment card was thus designed for use in this high risk group. Developmental assessment card comprised of a record card, a reading card and a manual. Colors were used to categorize developmental level, namely blue color for “advance than age”, green color for “normal for age”, yellow color for “at risk group and need stimulation as written in the manual”, and pink color for “delayed development and should see health personnel”. Developmental items were selected from the Holistic Development of Thai Children Study and the Prospective Cohort of Thai Children Study. They were included on the basis that most children could not pass at the defined age. The manual was designed to guide parents how to teach these skills to their children. The card with manual was field tested with mothers residing in congested areas of Bangkok and rural areas of 4 regions in Thailand. It was also tested with community health personnel. Their suggestions were used to edit the manual and improve comprehensibility of the card to suit the at risk group.

บรรณานุกรม :
ลัดดา เหมาะสุวรรณ . (2546). โครงการวิจัยเรื่องพัฒนาการแบบองค์รวมของเด็กไทย : ปัจจัยคัดสรรด้านครอบครัว และการอบรมเลี้ยงดูเด็ก.
    กรุงเทพมหานคร : สำนักงานกองทุนสนับสนุนการวิจัย.
ลัดดา เหมาะสุวรรณ . 2546. "โครงการวิจัยเรื่องพัฒนาการแบบองค์รวมของเด็กไทย : ปัจจัยคัดสรรด้านครอบครัว และการอบรมเลี้ยงดูเด็ก".
    กรุงเทพมหานคร : สำนักงานกองทุนสนับสนุนการวิจัย.
ลัดดา เหมาะสุวรรณ . "โครงการวิจัยเรื่องพัฒนาการแบบองค์รวมของเด็กไทย : ปัจจัยคัดสรรด้านครอบครัว และการอบรมเลี้ยงดูเด็ก."
    กรุงเทพมหานคร : สำนักงานกองทุนสนับสนุนการวิจัย, 2546. Print.
ลัดดา เหมาะสุวรรณ . โครงการวิจัยเรื่องพัฒนาการแบบองค์รวมของเด็กไทย : ปัจจัยคัดสรรด้านครอบครัว และการอบรมเลี้ยงดูเด็ก. กรุงเทพมหานคร : สำนักงานกองทุนสนับสนุนการวิจัย; 2546.