|ชื่อเรื่อง||:||โครงการหลักสูตรมัคคุเทศก์งานแกะสลักไม้และงานไม้สำหรับนักเรียนในชุมชนบ้านถวาย อ.หางดง จ.เชียงใหม่|
|อ้างอิง||:||http://elibrary.trf.or.th/project_content.asp?PJID=RDG4240017 , http://research.trf.or.th/node/1070|
The objectives of this research were to 1) study the process of the local curriculum development; 2) study the teachers' abilities along the process of the curriculum development; 3) study conditions facilitated the process of the curriculum development , and those interfered the process; 4) study both the direct , and indirect or attached impacts of the process of the curriculum development, and of the curriculum implementation on other teachers in the school and on the community strengthening . Research Site There were two research sites in the study. The first site was Bann Ton Kaew school, a school under the ONPEC's Opportunity Expansion Project. The school was the only one school provided service for approximately 480 children in Bann Thawai community, from kindergarten to grade 9. There were altogether 19 personnel, inclusive of teachers and one school head. The second research site was the wood-carving handicraft village of Bann Thawai , approximately 140 households with population of 700. Target Group Three teachers who were responsible for students in the sixth grade level were the target group in this study. Their involvement in the process of the local curriculum development emphasizing the collaboration and interrelatedness between the teachers and the local community was investigated . Research Methodology Field research methodology, which primarily based on the observer participation method was conducted through the study. The principal data, gathered continuously over a period of 20 months from June 1999 - January 2001, were based on direct observation of and interaction with the teachers, especially by involving in all five stages of the process of the local curriculum development. Outlined but casual interviews were probed while interacting with the teachers and key informants in the village. Data from observations and conversations were recorded in two steps. First, key phrases and words were jotted down while in the field, and secondly, were elaborated into detailed accounts as soon as the researcher arrived at her quarter. The field notes were analyzed in order to be properly assigned to three broad categories: the process of local curriculum development; the school culture; and the patterns of relationship between school and community. To avoid bias and enhancing validity, data collected from informants in various settings were checked for inconsistencies as well as the consistencies. The findings and interpretation were checked again by identifying with existing theoretical frameworks in social science, theories of diffusion of educational innovation, educational theories, and knowledge concerning culture in school organization. Findings 1. There were five stages in the process of the local curriculum development: 1) Informing the village’s social and cultural context as well as its current issues to the teachers involve in the local curriculum development project. At this stage the school head called for the meeting to inform the teachers about the village’s social and cultural context as well as its current issues. Stimulating discussion on local curriculum policy, and decision to develop a particular local curriculum was made. 2) Drafting the curriculum proposal. The teachers got together to plan the curriculum proposal. They decided together what ground to cover, what style of teaching to adopt. Then, each one was responsible for particular course unit decided upon, and writing up statements of general aims, list of topics to be covered. The proposal was to be reviewed for comment by the village governed body who also served as the curriculum advisory committee. 3) Developing the local curriculum. Each teacher was responsible for particular course unit, doing research on particular topic by participating in community activities, and collecting related information from other educational resources. They elaborated the preliminary planning drawn in the second stage into the complete set of the local curriculum as being advised by the curriculum advisory committee. 4) Evaluating the local curriculum. All curriculum related materials and the overall curriculum structure were reviewed by the local advisory committee, and by curriculum specialists. The local advisory committee evaluated the antecedent situations in the curriculum by comparing knowledge, skills, and equipment available in the curriculum with that was supposed to be covered as previously agreed upon. The curriculum specialists reviewed the curriculum to assure the educational attainment and possibility of its transaction. 5) Curriculum adjustment. Each teacher revised and improved her course unit in response to the feedback in order to assure the curriculum accountability to the local community and to educational attainment. 2. The teachers, up to a certain point, could develop field study skills and knowledge necessary to obtain the local wisdom and culture, but unable to put the available data into well written information sheets. They did not have enough basic knowledge and skills in curriculum development. However, when the curriculum guidelines had been set up they could draw up curriculum related materials to be used. They were able to develop teacher- made lesson plans, time table, examination and test for monitoring achievement. 3. Positive factors that played crucial role in the local curriculum development were: the teachers’ willingness to work along side the local people; administration’s support through the provision of flexibility in work schedules, and going easy on some usual rigid school regulations; strong sense of community among the local people and its active interest in the making of local curriculum; teachers’ expectation for higher academic status; academic and financial supports in addition to continuous motivation from the researcher; shared experience and work cooperation from inside change agent. Negative factors that not only interfered the effectiveness of the curriculum development process, but almost caused all involved to quit the job were as the followings. The teacher did not have strong enough background knowledge and skills in curriculum development. They did not possess field study skills to collect information from the local community. The communicative language used by the teachers was not within the reach of the local people. They were unable to locate outside academic resource and draw substantial information from them. They were pre-occupied with school routine work, and with their own personal affairs. They were unresponsive to the concept of formative and behavioral evaluation. There were not enough evidence to identify strong sense of learning community among the teachers in this school. 4. Impact of the local curriculum development process. Direct impact Beside from the local curriculum itself, effective collaboration for mutual beneficial relationship between teachers and the local people was initiated and added on to the usual school and community one - side beneficial relationship, the school side. Learning community among the teachers had been developed. Community stakeholders and political leaders became self sufficient with strong sense of community to get involved in the curriculum development process. The divided boundary between school and community had been lifted. Indirect impact Period One : The local people were invited to become active participants in the school educational activities. Other teachers were motivated to take part in their own local curriculum development. There were noticeable infrastructure changes in the village to support the expected tourists. There was confusion among the local people as well as the teachers on the real purpose of education, whether to prepare children for higher education, or for the community involvement and concerns. Period Two: Two more local curriculum had been developed. The local community had been clearly divided into two subgroups. One group, smaller but influential, tended to value urban culture and put a premium on the village’s prosperity from limitless production of wood carving handicrafts. Another group hold on to the rituals of their daily lives and their knowledge of the traditional work while trying to cultivate practices and knowledge that could balance the well being of local society with the village’s prosperity.
สำลี ทองธิว . (2545). โครงการหลักสูตรมัคคุเทศก์งานแกะสลักไม้และงานไม้สำหรับนักเรียนในชุมชนบ้านถวาย อ.หางดง จ.เชียงใหม่.
กรุงเทพมหานคร : สำนักงานกองทุนสนับสนุนการวิจัย.
สำลี ทองธิว . 2545. "โครงการหลักสูตรมัคคุเทศก์งานแกะสลักไม้และงานไม้สำหรับนักเรียนในชุมชนบ้านถวาย อ.หางดง จ.เชียงใหม่".
กรุงเทพมหานคร : สำนักงานกองทุนสนับสนุนการวิจัย.
สำลี ทองธิว . "โครงการหลักสูตรมัคคุเทศก์งานแกะสลักไม้และงานไม้สำหรับนักเรียนในชุมชนบ้านถวาย อ.หางดง จ.เชียงใหม่."
กรุงเทพมหานคร : สำนักงานกองทุนสนับสนุนการวิจัย, 2545. Print.
สำลี ทองธิว . โครงการหลักสูตรมัคคุเทศก์งานแกะสลักไม้และงานไม้สำหรับนักเรียนในชุมชนบ้านถวาย อ.หางดง จ.เชียงใหม่. กรุงเทพมหานคร : สำนักงานกองทุนสนับสนุนการวิจัย; 2545.