|คำค้น||:||เชียงใหม่ , ไก่ประดู่หางดำ|
|อ้างอิง||:||http://elibrary.trf.or.th/project_content.asp?PJID=RDG5520008 , http://research.trf.or.th/node/8560|
The research on “Value Creation of Pradu-Hangdum Chicken to the Consumer' s Perception in Chiangmai Province” was conducted with four (4) objectives: 1) to study the costvolume- profit from Pradu-Hangdum chicken production using different methods; 2) to determine the perception and consumption needs by consumers for Pradu-Hangdum chicken at the top, middle and bottom market levels in Chiang Mai; 3) to investigate the structure and market characteristics of the Pradu-Hangdum chicken products in various market levels; and 4) to identify guidelines for value creation of Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum Chicken. Results of the study are as follow: Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum chicken networking farms and farmers could be divided into 5 types with each having different cost-volume-profit, and cost value structure based on production process, as follow: Type 1 – Networking farms producing purebred Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum chicks were capable of producing an average of 138,569 chicks/farm/year with an average production cost at 15.48 baht/chick and contribution margin per unit of 4.22 baht/chick (contribution margin ratio 28.08%) with cost structure on important expenses such as feed at 44.74%, purebred chicks at 20.99% and labor cost at 18.33%, respectively. Type 2 – Networking farms producing Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum hybrid chick had production capacity of 107,922 chicks/farm/year with production cost of 13.83 baht/chick and contribution margin per unit of 3.08 baht/chick (contribution margin ratio 19.28%) with cost structure consisting of important expenses such as feed for breeders (51.27%), labor (15.53%) and breed (14.83%), respectively. Type 3 – Networking farms of Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum chicken growers were found to have an average production of 16,800 birds/farm/year with average cost of 63.20 baht and contribution margin per unit of 35.61 baht/chick (contribution margin ratio 34.07%) with production cost structure covering important expenses such as feed (52.74%), breed (19.78%) and labor (20.47%). Meanwhile, networking farms of Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum hybrid chicken were shown to have an average production of 66,000 birds/farm/year at an average cost of 59.45 baht and contribution margin per unit of 28.68 baht/chick (contribution margin ratio 30.80%) with production cost structure covering important expenses such as feed (63.18%), breed (19.51%) and labor (12.44%). Type 4 – Production of chicken growers through networking farmers showed that grower production was at an average of 4,754 birds/farmer/year with an average production cost of 61.47 baht/kg and contribution margin per unit of 29.89 baht/chick (contribution margin ratio 30.62%) with production cost structure covering important expenses such as feed (49.13%), breed (25.15%)and labor (14.90%). Type 5 – Networking farmers producing Pradu-Hangdum chicken on a free range showed an average production of 375 birds/year at average cost of 64.7 baht/kg and contribution margin per unit of 27.64 baht/chick (contribution margin ratio 27.51%) with production cost structure covering important expenses such as feed (32.24%), labor (27.40%) and breed (23.59%). Consumers’ perception, value creation and needs classified according to markets About 21.00% of the consumers at the top market level had a perception towards Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum chicken products, giving a high value creation (average score = 3.72) based on distinct traits that differentiate it from broilers, on nutrition, on free range growing and as native chicken suitable for adding Thai spices and as local delicacy. The need for fresh consumption was shown at an average of 1.72 kg/week/household with average consumption value at 301.25 baht/household/week. Meanwhile, 15.00% of the consumers at the middle market level showed perception towards these specific products with also a high value creation (average score of 3.79) in terms of distinct traits that differentiate it from broilers, on nutrition, on free range growing and as native chicken suitable for adding Thai spices and as local food. The need for fresh chicken consumption was shown at an average of 1.95 kg/week/household with average consumption cost at 116.00 baht/household/week. On the other hand, 30% of consumers at the bottom market level showed perception with high value creation (average score of 3.77) based on distinct traits that separate it from broilers, on nutrition, on free range growing and as native chicken suitable for adding Thai spices and as local food. Consumers’ need for fresh chicken was at an average of 1.73 kg/week/household with average fresh chicken consumption value at 179.53 baht/household/week. Value structure and market characteristics of Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum chicken were surveyed separately in three market levels based on the types of products of the purebred and hybrid Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum chicken (frozen and cold products), free range grown and purebred eggs. At the top market level, products of the Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum consisted of purebred chicken at a price of 195 baht/kg (average production cost of 153.92 baht/kg) and free range grown purebred chicken at 215 baht/kg (average production cost at 137 baht/kg). Product types of fresh chicken in both frozen and cold storage were sold in competition among 8 shops. As for frozen chicken, most products were imported from abroad. Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum chicken products had a market share of 27.92% and were shown to have high competitive ability. There was also a high marketing feasibility the cost of egg products at a price of 8.75 baht/egg (cost for egg production at 5.50 baht/egg) with competition coming from among 12 sellers and which were mostly egg products from a monopolized market. But there was only one seller who sold organic eggs. Results also indicated that eggs of Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum had the ability for high competition and cost control. In the middle market, products included Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum hybrid chicken (frozen) at a price of 158 baht/kg (with production cost of 116.87 baht/kg) and 220 baht/chick (with production cost of 173.36 baht/chick) in a highly competitive market. Competitors contained diversified consumer products from sliced chicken parts which commanded price advantage. Most of the product types consisted of cold storage fresh chicken, sliced frozen chicken parts retailed in the bottom market but was found to be less accepted by consumers. There was less competition for Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum chickens in this particular market so there should be an increase in public relations to build perception towards product differences including the need for the improvement in the diversity of choice products for the consumers. Markets at the bottom level were found to have a very strong market structure with about 85 sellers in 43 markets and a market volume of 3,481 birds/day (approximately 3,908.10 kg/day) commanding a value of 439,983.30 baht/day. These were divided into Chiang Mai Pradu- Hangdum chickens at 28.73% with amount of 790 birds/day or 948 kg/day at a value of 126,396.84 baht/day; native chicken at 40.72% with amount of 1,251 birds/day or 1,376.10 kg/day at a value of 179,154.46 baht/day, and rooster at 30.60% with amount of 1,440 birds/day or 1,584 kg/day at a value of 134,432 baht/day. Market structure at the bottom level was thus considered a completely competitive structure and therefore, Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum chickens showed ability for high competition due to its distinct character in response to the behavior and needs of the consumers of the market at that level. Guidelines for value creation of Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum chicken In the value creation of Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum chicken that would allow the sustainability of the potential for competition and development of the industry, there must be cooperation from the government and the private sector including a division of duties, responsibility and having the professionalism to provide greater efficiency in resource management in existing roles within the production process that start from the farm to the consumers (including industrial facilities). The cooperative model should create participation and ownership for the capitalist (Build Own Operate: BOO) and the government should help reduce some investment costs to decrease variant cost gaps in the production of native chicken and broiler of big industries. These guidelines are enumerated below: Government sector 1. In the development and certification of purebred chicks, the government has no limitation on the efficiency, implementation and investment for ownership of native breeds (such as Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum or other developed breeds) by the government (through the Department of Livestock) which could result to market failure if ever this is to be implemented by the private sector. 2. The Department of Livestock has promoted and set up the standard criteria for native chicken farm (GMP and Q certification) for both the networking farms and farmers in order to establish consumer trust. 3. The Department of Livestock and the Department of Health should cooperate to develop, promote and certify standardized small-scale abattoirs (community enterprise) which must properly operate under sanitary procedures and with regards to environmental management. 4. Higher education establishments (such as universities which have teaching and learning systems on chicken broiler management) and the Department of Livestock which have several facilities in many areas involved in product development intended for the high and middle markets, must be available and prepared in terms of laboratories, equipment and tools including standard abattoirs and cold storage to maintain good quality products and become the hub for knowledge and center for training the networking farmers and farms. 5. Institutions for higher education, research and development such as Maejo University and the Department of Livestock should cooperate together to become a model on processing and marketing. On product processing of Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum chicken from the menu that could serve as a selling point towards the consumers, Maejo University serves as a hub for marketing and production, a comprehensive cooperation between the Department of Livestock and Maejo University by serving as a demonstration and training center for target networking farmers. 6. Government offices at the provincial level should serve as the mechanism for the promotion under the strategy of the province “Chiang Mai, a city of safe food within 2017” that would make Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum chicken an economically important food commodity and by recommending to tourists to know the value of native chicken of the province through production of public relations media (activities at the province level). 7. The government should draft an article that would credit the private sector for supporting the network farmers and farms as model organizations in providing assistance to farmers and community economy including environmental dimension. 8. The local administrative organizations should have strong participation in terms of designing investment or cost (finance) and implementation of participation in activities related to native chicken production in the locality with the goal of producing safety food and food security in the community to advocate the motivation for farmers and entrepreneurs in community business among the farmers group. Private sector 1. Networking farmers and farms should cooperate in breeding management (purebred and hybrid), farm management and standard feed management which would lead to product quality acceptance (at least in terms of distinct trait as an identity of the native chicken of that breed). 2. Network farmers and farms should participate in the investment of breeds (participation through the purchase of breeds or through investment in parent breeds in which the government has already made investments in the ancestral blood thus the sale of parental breed by the Department of Livestock should include the declaration of the real cost of producing parental breeds). Networking farmers and farms receiving these purebreds, provide effective assistance of lessening the burden of the government (e.g. Center for the Maintenance of Livestock Breeds, Department of Livestock that functions to develop and distribute the breeds). 3. The obstacles to the commercialization and access of the purebred native chicken (particularly the Chiang Mai Pradu-Hangdum chicken) which has a high potential for commercial production and which is currently is of great interest to many large private companies, refer to the difficulty in popular economy and complete market competition similar to the control of breeds that would benefit the farmers particularly to small farmers who find it hard to do breeding of chicken. Thus, auction practices with efficiency over actual cost from the money invested by the government in breed improvement of native chicken can be used as a control regulation but must allow small farmers to have the ability to access and become owners and market developers (by the private sector). By this, there must be a top target for the society (including consumers) which means that benefits or social welfare are created for each sector in the society. 4. Market entrepreneurs in each level should serve as important mechanism in efficiently and effectively spreading out the products to consumers who have the consumption need and behavior and who can provide feedback to the producers for future production planning to respond to the needs of the market at each level.
ศิริพร กิรติการกุล . (2557). การสร้างคุณค่าของไก่ประดู่หางดำเชียงใหม่ สู่การรับรู้ของผู้บริโภคจังหวัดเชียงใหม่.
กรุงเทพมหานคร : สำนักงานกองทุนสนับสนุนการวิจัย.
ศิริพร กิรติการกุล . 2557. "การสร้างคุณค่าของไก่ประดู่หางดำเชียงใหม่ สู่การรับรู้ของผู้บริโภคจังหวัดเชียงใหม่".
กรุงเทพมหานคร : สำนักงานกองทุนสนับสนุนการวิจัย.
ศิริพร กิรติการกุล . "การสร้างคุณค่าของไก่ประดู่หางดำเชียงใหม่ สู่การรับรู้ของผู้บริโภคจังหวัดเชียงใหม่."
กรุงเทพมหานคร : สำนักงานกองทุนสนับสนุนการวิจัย, 2557. Print.
ศิริพร กิรติการกุล . การสร้างคุณค่าของไก่ประดู่หางดำเชียงใหม่ สู่การรับรู้ของผู้บริโภคจังหวัดเชียงใหม่. กรุงเทพมหานคร : สำนักงานกองทุนสนับสนุนการวิจัย; 2557.