|คำค้น||:||approaches to the development of oral English communication skills , university students in EFL contexts , Asian and Balkan regions|
6.2 Methods and instruments
6.2.1 Questionnaire surveys
Questionnaires will be given in class to undergraduate non-English major students and EFL teachers at PSU-Hat Yai, Thailand and at UNS, Serbia in order to capture the holistic picture of oral English language teaching and learning at the university level based on their perspectives (See the first drafts of the questionnaires in Appendices A&B). With the researchers being present for explanation and clarification, the students will provide written responses to the questionnaires in their native language.
Developed around issues that are of central concern to the researchers, the whole questionnaire is divided into five fairly equal sections. The first section is concerned with the participants’ demographic data, the second one with the physical setting in which classes are held (as the size of the class, shape of the classroom and overall physical arrangement of the space affect the process of communication and possibility of practice in pair work, group work, etc.), the third section is concerned with participants’ internal factors that dictate their willingness to speak (e.g. motivation – integrative or instrumental – less motivated students who do not see the point of practicing speaking will be willing to speak much less than highly motivated students), and the fourth section focuses on speaking activities themselves (how they are organized, how often they happen, how they are performed, the level of student participation, etc.).
To analyze the first part of the questionnaire concerned with the demographic data of research participants, descriptive statistics, i.e., mean and standard deviation will be used. The aim here is to arrive at the profile of research participants that concerns their background and learning experience. These are believed to affect their oral performance and overall progress, as well as their attitudes towards language learning.
As for the other parts of the questionnaire that comprise either multiple-choice questions or questions with the Likert scale, the following correlations will be calculated in order to find statistically significant sets of data: students’ answers – level of knowledge, students’ answers – duration of studying English, students’ answers – gender, students’ answers – mother tongue, students’ answers – other languages spoken, students’ answers – average grades in high school / at faculty, students’ answers – English grades in high school / at faculty.
Another set of correlations is intended to compare the answers of Serbian and Thai students in order to find statistically significant sets of data.
Statistical packages such as SPSS 17.0 or above will be employed in the analysis.
6.2.2 Semi-structured interviews with teachers and students on voluntary basis
Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with appropriate teacher and student participants in order to verify the data collected and gain insights into issues facing university EFL teachers and students in the process of developing oral English communication skills. The questions to ask the teachers in the interview will be based on the questionnaire items provided on pp. 32-38.
6.2.3 Materials analysis
Syllabi, lesson plans and materials used in courses aiming primarily at developing students’ oral English communication will be closely examined according to an agreed rubric to determine whether they are effective and really match the needs for the students to master oral English communication skills.
6.2.4 Class observation and audio or video recording of classroom interaction
Class observation and audio or video recording of classroom interaction will be carried out to determine how the syllabus, lesson plans, and materials are implemented in the classroom and to obtain actual teaching and learning practices of the research participants. The criteria for class observation will be provided for participant-as-observer researchers (See Appendix C for the draft).